X-Ray Diffraction ( XRD)

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a non-destructive technique for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of crystalline materials in the form of powder or solid.

X Ray Beam Reflection

GNR in cooperation with academic and industrial users has developed a set of technically advanced and flexible X-Ray diffractometers able to satisfy the different level of requirements and different operating budget. XRD analyzer for all budgets and applications.

How X-Ray Diffractometer works …

Diffraction is obtained as the “reflection” of an X-ray beam from a family of parallel and equally spaced atomic planes, following Bragg’s law: when a monochromatic X-ray beam with wavelength l is incident on lattice planes with an angle q, diffraction occurs if the path of rays reflected by successive planes (with distanced) is a multiple of the wavelength.XRD Principle

  Qualitative analysis (phase analysis) can be done through the comparison of the diffractogram obtained from the specimen with a huge number of patterns included in the official databases. Single phases and/or mixtures of phases can be analysed with the programs available today.

Applications of X-Ray Diffractometer

Many Investigations can be performed with the help of X-ray diffraction.

Residual Stress forces that results in a small compression or dilatation of the d-spacing. With XRD analyzers it is possible to measure the strain (the deformation of the original lattice) and the stress is calculated based on the elastic constants of the material

XRD Analyzer 

The texture is the preferred orientation of the crystallites in a specimen. If a texture in a material is present, the intensity of a diffraction line changes with the orientation of the sample with respect to the incident beam.

Crystallite size and MicroStrain information are obtained by the analysis of the width and the shape of the diffraction lines.

Structure Analysis XRD is used to investigate the crystallographic structure of a material. The position and the relative intensities of the diffraction lines can be correlated to the position of the atoms in the unit cell and its dimensions. Indexing, structure refinement and simulation can be obtained with specific computer programs.

Thin-film Keeping the incident beam at low angles, it is possible to investigate the properties of multilayers by minimizing the interference of the substrate. Reflectometry can also be performed in the same way.

GNR XRD analyzer portfolio covers a huge range of applications for materials characterization and quality control of crystalline or non-crystalline materials such as powders, specimens, thin films or liquids.

XRD Analyzers

Stress X

Residual Stress measurement XRD analyzerRobotic Residual Stress measurement by X-Ray Diffractometer mounted on 6-axis robot

  • Test Methods: EN UNI 15305, ASTM 915
  • StressX provides a flexible solution to residual stress determination on samples of any dimensions by the original synergy between a compact X-ray diffractometer and a 6-axis robot.
  • 6-axis robots are available with positioning accuracy and repeatability as low as 20μm and a positioning range as high as 895mm radius from the robot center.

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AreX L

Retained Austenite measurement Arex-L

Retained Austenite Measurement with XRD analyzer
  • Confirms to ASTM E 975-03 standard practice for retained austenite measurement.
  • Standard deviation better than 0.6%.
  • Limit of detection 0.5% of RA.
  • Fast measurement – 3 min max
  • Easy to use One button operation. No specific X-Ray Diffractometer  knowledge required.
  • No Sample preparation required.

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theta theta xrdExplorer is a multipurpose Theta/Theta  high resolution XRD analyzer.

With no limits to its applications Explorer X-Ray diffractometer modular system offers high performances in all analytical areas.

  • Modular and Plug & Scan design
  • User can easily change the Beam geometry.
  • Reflection/transmission multi sample holders
  • Johansson focusing K-alpha 1 monochromators
  • Secondary graphite monochromators

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Arex D

Bench Retained Austenite measurementAreX D the first desktop X-Ray diffractometer designed for determination of Retained Austenite testing in steel.

  • Compliance with ASTM E 975-03 standard practice
  • Standard deviation better than 0.6%.
  • Limit of detection 0.5% of RA.
  • Fast measurement – 3 min max
  • Easy to use One button operation. No specific XRD information required.

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Europe 600

Benchtop X-Ray Diffractometer

Europe 600 is a general-purpose benchtop diffractometer for XRD analyzer for qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycrystalline materials.

  • Ultra-Compact design
  • Theta/2Theta and Theta/Theta outstanding goniometer
  • Fail Safe Radiation Enclosure
  • Incident Beam Variable Slit
  • Easy to use instrument.

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APD 2000 PRO

phase and structural analysis of powder samplesAPD 2000 PRO X-Ray Diffractometer is designed to be the best solution for phase and structural analysis of powder samples.

 A powerful tool for powder diffraction applications such as routine qualitative and quantitative phase analysis, non-ambient analysis, structure solution and refinement, crystallite size and degree of crystallinity calculation.

  • High Stability X-Ray generator through precision feedback control circuits
  • Automatic ramp of the high voltage and emission current to pre-set values
  • Microfocus tubes and policapillary collimators
  • Possibility of changing automatically from transmission to reflection mode
  • Traditional, rotating, multi sample and capillary sample holders

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SpiderX EDGE

GNR SpiderX EDGE is a Residual Stress + Retained austenite measurement unit and the smallest theta/theta diffractometer.

portable residual stress analyzer 

Designed focusing on exceptional portability, lightness, easiness to set up, outstanding performances and negligible X-Ray emissions.

  • Conforms to EN UNI 15305 and ASTM 915.
  • Non-destructive analysis of any dimensions sample for indoor and outdoor analysis.
  • SpiderX uses a low power X-ray tube
  • User changeable X-ray tube without any special tools.
  • Fluorescence background suppression by setting an appropriate energy threshold.
  • Motorized X-ray tube and X-ray detector with movements independent to each other.

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